California vehicle code 23110 involves throwing substances out of a car and I’ve seen all kinds of different cases like this. For example around the 4th of July time people just throwing firecrackers out of there car. This is more than just throwing a lit cigarette out of the car. This is throwing a substance that can potentially harm another car. I’ve handled a car where supposed victims claimed that my client threw a hammer from one car to the other on the freeway. It was my quickest not guilty it was 10 mins. We hadn’t even had the chance to leave the courtroom. The idea that someone could throw a hammer from the driver’s seat through an open window into the other cars window as they were driving along. The glass was broken the wrong way.. I don’t even know how that case made it to court, but that’s a more of an extreme example of this type of crime. That’s what this crime is about and a lot of times it involves road rage incidents or young people or what have you that just get angry and throw something from their car. Get in front of another car and throw something back that’ll hit the windshield which could potentially be very dangerous but there are also a lot of different defenses to these. One of the most prevalent being mistake or accident. Sometimes people throw things out of their car and don’t mean for it to hit other cars. Sometimes it just flat out it didn’t happen and the evidence isn’t there.