15 January 2013: Jay Leiderman on Russia Today Discussing DDoS as Protest Speech

Jay Leiderman
By: Jay Leiderman
January 16 2017

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

Jay Leiderman on Russia Today Discussing DDoS as Protest Speech

Demanding the right to digitally protest: Hacktivists petition the White House to legalize DDoS

Another wonderful article by Andy Panda Blake accompanied this RT story on DDoS as protected speech.  The title is above, here is the unabridged text.  Thanks to Andy for, as usual, being fair and getting it right:
Is temporarily slowing down a website a legal form of protest? Current US law says it isn’t, but hacktivists want the White House to make changes that would force the government to reconsider their witch-hunt against alleged computer criminals.

In the latest WhiteHouse.gov petition to go viral, the Obama administration is asked to make a method of momentarily crippling a website comparable to real word demonstrations, essentially allowing for a whole new legal form of online protest.

“With the advance in internet technology comes new grounds for protesting,” writes ‘Dylan K’ of Eagle, Wisconsin.

Dylan’s petition, uploaded this week to the White House’s We the People page, is the most recent of these electronic pleas on the website to generate national headlines. A series of petitions in late 2012 demanding the peaceful secession of certain states from the US garnered nearly one million signatures from across the country, and just this week the Obama administration was prompted to respond to one popular request to depot CNN host Piers Morganover his outspoken anti-gun views. That call for action, advocated by Second Amendment proponents and firearm owners concerned over a possible rifle ban, eventually accumulated around 110,000 electronic signatures.

When the White House responded to the petition to deport Morgan this week, press secretary Jay Carney said Americans shouldn’t let “arguments over the Constitution’s Second Amendment violate the spirit of its First.”

DDoS should be viewed by the courts as speech protected withing the First Amendment as long as the protests are reasonable in time, place and manner

Those rallying for new computer laws say that current legislation limits those very constitutional rights, though, and that one electronic form of action should be covered under the First Amendment — the provision that provides for the freedom of speech, protest and assembly.

In the latest instance, the White House is asked to evaluate a federal rule that currently makes it unlawful to engage in distributed denial-or-service, or DDoS, attacks — a harmless but effective way of flooding a website’s server with so much traffic that it can’t properly render pages for legitimate users.

Performed by both seasoned hackers and novice computer users alike, DDoS-ing a website essentially makes certain pages completely unavailable for minutes, hours or days. Unlike real world protests, though, demonstrators don’t even have to leave the house to protest. Instead, humongous streams of information can be sent to servers with a single mouse click, only for that data to become so cumbersome that the websites targeted can’t properly function.

Under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, a DDoS assault is highly illegal. For those familiar with the method, though, they say it’s simply a matter of voicing an opinion in an online format and should be allowed.

“Distributed denial-of-service is not any form of hacking in any way,” states the petition. “It is the equivalent of repeatedly hitting the refresh button on a webpage.”

Overloading a targeted website with too much traffic, says Dylan K, is “no different than any ‘occupy’ protest.”According to him and the roughly 1,100 cosigners, there is much common ground between the two. “Instead of a group of people standing outside a building to occupy the area, they are having their computer occupy a website to slow (or deny) service of that particular website for a short time,” he says.

For companies that are hit with DDoS assaults, though, they sing a different song. In 2006, controversial radio host Hal Turner had his website taken offline after members of the then-infant hacktivist movement Anonymous used denial-of-service attacks to shut down his site to visitors. Turner said the bandwidth overflow cost him thousands of dollars in fees from his hosting company.

When Turner tried to sue those he blamed for the DDoS attack, a federal judge for the United States District Court in New Jersey eventually dismissed his claim. Other “hackers,” however, haven’t been so lucky.

When PayPal, Visa and MasterCard announced in 2010 that it would no longer accept funds for the website WikiLeaks, Anonymous and others responded with a DDoS attack on the payment service providers. The following summer, the US Department of Justice filed an indictment against 14 Americans they accused of participating in shutting down PayPal.

That same year, a homeless hacker using the alias “Commander X” was charged with waging a DDoS attack on the official government website of Santa Cruz, California because he opposed the city’s policy that outlawed sleeping in public space. X could have been sentenced to serious time for committing a felony, but he escaped the United States, allegedly seeking refuge in Canada where he is reported to be in hiding today.

“For a 30-minute online protest I’m facing 15 years in a penitentiary,” he told the National Post last year while on the run. According to an interview he gave last month with Ars Technica, he also participated in OpPayBack — the Anonymous-led assault PayPal and others over their WikiLeaks blockage.
California attorney Jay Leiderman has represented X, and has gone on the record to compare DDoS attacks with real life sit-ins.

“A DDoS is a protest, it’s a digital sit it. It is no different than physically occupying a space. It’s not a crime, it’s speech,”he told Talking Points Memo in 2011. “They are the equivalent of occupying the Woolworth’s lunch counter during the civil rights movement,” The Atlantic quoted him saying last year.

A DDoS is a protest, it’s a digital sit it. It is no different than physically occupying a space. It’s not a crime, it’s speech

Speaking specifically of the operation against the companies that cut funding to WikiLeaks, the lawyer said online action is equivalent to peaceful protest.“Take PayPal for example, just like Woolworth’s, people went to PayPal and said, I want to give a donation to WikiLeaks. In Woolworth’s they said, all I want to do is buy lunch, pay for my lunch, and then I’ll leave. People said I want to give a donation to WikiLeaks, I’ll take up my bandwidth to do that, then I’ll leave, you’ll make money, I’ll feel fulfilled, everyone’s fulfilled,” he said. “PayPal will take donations for the Ku Klux Klan, other racists and questionable organizations, but they won’t process donations for WikiLeaks. All the PayPal protesters did was take up some bandwidth. In that sense, DDoS is absolutely speech, it should absolutely be recognized as such, protected as such, and the law should be changed.”

Leiderman added that he considers the use of DDoS not to be an “attack” in some circumstances, but actually legitimate protest. 

“[T]he law should be narrowly drawn and what needs to be excised from that are the legitimate protests,” he said. “It’s really easy to tell legitimate protests, I think, and we should be broadly defining legitimate protests,” he said.

New York attorney Stanley Cohen, who is representing one of the accused “PayPal 14” hackers responsible for the Anonymous-led operation, agrees.

“When Obama orders supporters to inundate the switchboards of Congress, that’s good politics, when a bunch of kids decide to send a political message with roots going back to the civil rights movement and the revolution, it’s something else,” Cohen told TPM in 2011. “Barack Obama urged people to shutdown the switchboard, he’s not indicted.”

“It’s not identity theft, not money or property, pure and simple case of an electronic sit in, at best,” he said.

Leiderman added that he considers the use of DDoS not to be an “attack” in some circumstances, but actually legitimate protest. 

So far over 1,100 people agree on WhiteHouse.gov, and hope the Obama administration will get their point. Until then, though, Commander X and others face upwards of a decade in prison apiece for violating a clause in the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act that makes it unlawful to “knowingly cause the transmission of a program, information code or command, and as a result of such conduct, intentionally causes damages without authorization to a protected computer.”
With attorneys like Leiderman and Cohen arguing that the damages in questions aren’t quite criminal, the White House may have to respond to the latest WhiteHouse.gov petition. The Obama administration is mandated to respond if it can garner 25,000 signatures in the next month. Until then, though, proponents of DDoS as free speech can cite what Jay Carney said when petitioners rallied for the deportation of Piers Morgan for his call to ban assault weapons.

“The Constitution not only guarantees an individual right to bear arms, but also enshrines the freedom of speech and the freedom of the press – fundamental principles that are essential to our democracy,” said Carney.

Meanwhile, exercising constitutional rights by way of overloading web servers isn’t being accepted as such by the government. That doesn’t mean that Anonymous or other so-called ‘hacktivists’ will change their ways: just last month, members of the hive-mind computer collective waged a DDoS attack on the website of the Westboro Baptist Church after the religious group announced plans to picket the funerals of mass shooting victims in Newtown, Connecticut. Anonymous waged a similar wave of attacks on the Church of Scientology in 2008, the result of which landed a number of Anons in prison for violating federal law.

103 thoughts on “15 January 2013: Jay Leiderman on Russia Today Discussing DDoS as Protest Speech

  1. Bill of Rights

    “The very purpose of a Bill of Rights was to withdraw certain subjects
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    Justice Robert H. Jackson
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    Source: West Virginia Board of Education vs. Barnette, 1943

  2. “Big Brother in the form of an increasingly powerful government and
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  4. Amnesty International
    Amnesty International is an organization dedicated to the campaign against the death penalty and also opposes human rights abuses.
    URL: Amnesty International
    Amnesty International is an organization dedicated to the campaign against the death penalty and also opposes human rights abuses.
    URL: http://www.amnesty.org/

  5. Law and Disorder January 16, 2017


    Hacktivist Advocate

    Long before news reports of Russians hacking, the Democratic National Convention dominated the news, a handful of lawyers across the nation were defending socially-minded hackers, or hacktivists, against harsh computer-related prosecutions. The term hactivism refers to persons who use computers to advance political agendas, often related to freedom of information, free speech and human rights.

    Guest – Attorney Jay Leiderman, the Atlantic Magazine has called attorney Jay Leiderman the “Hacktivist’s Advocate” for his work defending individuals accused of computer-related crimes, especially those associated with Anonymous. An experienced defense attorney, Leiderman lectures nationally on a range of criminal defense issues. He is a founding member of the Whistleblower’s Defense League, formed to combat FBI and Justice Department tactics of harassment and over-prosecution to chill and silence those who engage in journalism, Internet activism or dissent.

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    At a time when the GOP is playing games with the debt limit, a member of the Supreme Court is refusing to recuse himself from matters he has a financial interest in, and middle class incomes are stagnant, many want to change the subject. I don’t. This was a prank, and a silly one. I’m focused on my work. Anthony Weiner

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    You should see what our Founding Fathers used to say to each other and in the early part of our nation. But what they were able to do, especially in Philadelphia in 1787, four months, they argued about what a House should be, what a Senate should be, the power of the president, the Congress, the Supreme Court. And they had to deal with slavery. Colin Powell

  11. Human Being
    You are a human being they told me, something you should treasure But isn’t a human being the only animal who kills for pleasure? Man’s inhumanity to man, a crime like no other The first family on earth had brother killing brother We are power hungry bastards from the cradle to the grave We pillage other countries and the survivors we enslave Politicians lie to their people saying only what they want to hear Stripping their own of a sense of pride and instilling a state of fear They speak of human rights and how our country has been torn Then turn around and murder a child before he’s even born For killers and rapists and dealers the ACLU has led many fights Then tell a six year old rape victim that she really has no civil rights We can’t teach about Jesus, our school teachers must be mum We can teach about Hitler, Stalin and other human scum People kill each other for no reason every day Then a lower form of life, a lawyer saves his day Where is justice? Nowhere in sight. Anything is legal if the price is right You are a human being. This is what they proudly proclaim If I am a human being, then I should hang my head in shame.

    Southern Poverty Law Center

    Partnership for Drug-Free Kids – Where Families Find Answers

  12. “The jury has the right to judge both the law
    as well as the fact in controversy.”
    — John Jay
    (1745-1829) first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court,

    by Tom Paxton

    Humankind has survived some disasters, I’m sure.
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    So I’m sorry to tell you, my suffering friends,
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    Oh, a suffering world cries for mercy
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    In ten years we’re gonna have one million lawyers,
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    How much can a poor nation stand?
    How much can a poor nation stand

  14. Legal Humor Lawyer Gift Music CDs From LawTunes.comWHO ARE THE LAWTUNES?
    From their humble beginnings in Brooklyn, New York on an appropriately blustery day in December 1957, The LawTunes have long been the lone (and occasionally nearly harmonic) voice filling the void, vacuum, and other euphemisms for “not a whole lot” that is the unique genre of original law-related holiday music. Purportedly conceived during the broadcast of an episode of “Perry Mason” at the moment that a night-table clock radio spontaneously turned on and played an Elvis song, The LawTunes were destined to blaze a path and mix other metaphors as the first legal rockers. Indeed, they would have been the world’s first “garage band,” had they not lived in an apartment house that lacked internal parking facilities. Instead, they became the world’s first storage room band, introducing their music to an appreciative assemblage of empty steamer trunks, rusty tricycles, and yellowed newspapers. Needless to say, the audience was dumbstruck.
    Legal Humor Lawyer Gift Music CDs From LawTunes.com As they developed and, more importantly, briefly considered learning how to play music, The LawTunes and the three chords they eventually mastered soon became headliners on the competitive Bris, birthday party, and potty training celebration circuit. They wrote and played songs that gave voice to their most profound life experiences, such as spilled finger paint, gum in hair, and dislike of peas, be they intact or pureed. But they felt they had not reached their zenith (which, by then, had been replaced by a Magnavox).
    The chance came when, after their unchanged repertoire raised some eyebrows at weddings, college concerts, and corporate events, they chose to put down their instruments (relics of their briefly considering careers in medicine; earlier, they had lost their guitars, drums, and keyboards on a subway), and attend law school. They chose the University of Michigan, primarily for its warm weather.
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  15. Computer and Internet Fraud
    Computer and Internet Fraud: An Overview

    Criminal activity involving the perpetration of a fraud through the use of the computer or the internet can take many different forms. One common form includes “hacking,” in which a perpetrator uses sophisticated technological tools to remotely access a secure computer or internet location. A second common criminal activity involves illegally intercepting an electronic transmission not intended for the interceptor. This may result in the interception of private information such as passwords, credit card information, or other types of so-called identity theft.

    Federal law defines computer fraud as the use of a computer to create a dishonest misrepresentation of fact as an attempt to induce another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. Criminals create fraudulent misrepresentation in a number of ways. First, they can alter computer input in an unauthorized way. Employees may embezzle company funds by altering input data. Second, criminals can alter or delete stored data. Third, sophisticated criminals can rewrite software codes and upload them into a bank’s mainframe so that the bank will provide its users’ identities to the thieves. The thieves can then use this information to make unauthorized credit card purchases.

    Violators may be prosecuted under:

    18 U.S.C. § 506 No Electronic Theft Act
    18 U.S.C. § 1028 Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998
    18 U.S.C. § 1029 Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Access Devices
    18 U.S.C. § 1030 Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Computers
    18 U.S.C. § 1343 Wire Fraud
    18 U.S.C. § 1362 Communication Lines, Stations, or Systems
    18 U.S.C. § 2511 Interception and Disclosure of Wire, Oral, or Electronic Communications Prohibited
    18 U.S.C. § 2701 Unlawful Access to Stored Communications
    18 U.S.C. § 2702 Disclosure of Contents
    18 U.S.C. § 2703 Requirements for Governmental Access
    See White-collar crime.

    menu of sources

    Federal Material

    Federal Statutes

    18 U.S.C. § 1343, Wire Fraud
    18 U.S.C. § 506 No Electronic Theft Act
    18 U.S.C. § 1028 Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 1998
    18 U.S.C. § 1029 Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Access Devices
    18 U.S.C. § 1030 Fraud and Related Activity in Connection with Computers
    18 U.S.C. § 1362 Communication Lines, Stations, or Systems
    18 U.S.C. § 2511 Interception and Disclosure of Wire, Oral, or Electronic Communications Prohibited
    18 U.S.C. § 2701 Unlawful Access to Stored Communications
    18 U.S.C. § 2702 Disclosure of Contents
    18 U.S.C. § 2703 Requirements for Governmental Access
    Federal Judicial Decisions

    State Material

    State Agencies

    New York State Judicial Decisions

    Other References

    Key Internet Sources

    U.S. Department of Justice: Cybercrime
    Internet Crime Complaint Center
    Identity Theft (Nolo)
    Wired.com – Online Crime

    Other White-Collar Crime In The News

    Useful Offnet Sources

    Good Starting Point in Print: Orin S. Kerr, Computer Crime Law, West Group (2006).

  16. Defend at Network Perimeter (if You Run Your Own Web Server)
    There are a few technical measures that can be taken to partially mitigate the effect of an attack — especially in the first minutes — and some of these are quite simple. For example, you can:

    rate limit your router to prevent your Web server being overwhelmed
    add filters to tell your router to drop packets from obvious sources of attack
    timeout half-open connections more aggressively
    drop spoofed or malformed packages
    set lower SYN, ICMP, and UDP flood drop thresholds
    But the truth is that while these steps have been effective in the past, DDoS attacks are now usually too large for these measures to have any significant effect. Again, the most you can hope for is that they will buy you a little time as a DDoS attack ramps up.

  17. The Best Linux Kernel Settings to Mitigate DDoS
    Another common mistake is that people don’t use optimized kernel settings to better mitigate the effects of DDoS attacks. Note that this guide focuses on CentOS 7 as the operating system of choice. CentOS 7 includes a recent version of iptables and support of the new SYNPROXY target.

    We won’t cover every single kernel setting that you need to adjust in order to better mitigate DDoS with iptables. Instead, we provide a set of CentOS 7 kernel settings that we would use. Just put the below in your /etc/sysctl.conf file and apply the settings with sysctl -p.

  18. The point of a DoS attack is to make it difficult or impossible to actually service the incoming requests. The usual way to do this is to externally find some way to exhaust the available resources so there’s nothing left for legitimate requests.

  19. Fundamentally, all internet services take requests from the network, perform some work, and send back the result. To do this, the service will commit some amount of resources to fulfilling each request, where resources might include network capacity, CPU cycles, memory, IO, and so on.

  20. What Should You Do to Stop the Attack?
    Remember that the attacking machines typically belong to innocent people who don’t know that their computers have malware. You can report the offense to the attacker’s ISP abuse department. Usually, the abuse email is “abuse@.” This could at least stop some of the attacks, but this takes time and doesn’t help you right now.

    Attacks are stopped at the router. With a Windows server, you can also use the system firewall included with the operating system. You can read how to set up filters in Windows inthis article. If you don’t have control of the routers – which is the case if you have cloud hosting – then the emergency step would be to block traffic in the Windows firewall and contact your host.

    Some CDN cloud providers offer DDoS protection.CloudFlare is a popular performance and security company that offers good protection against even sophisticated attacks.

    You can choose any intrusion detection software, routing configurations, and even a CDN to mitigate DDoS attacks. However, very sophisticated attacks sometimes get through these defenses. It’s important to monitor your traffic, and Loggly helps save you time by giving you a graphical image and chart that you can use to quickly notice one of these attacks. With Loggly, you just need a few minutes each day to review any unusual traffic.

  21. “The barrier to entry of DDoS attacks in terms of cost has largely gone,” says Tim Pat Dufficy, managing director of ServerSpace, a hosting company and Internet service provider (ISP). “That means anyone can launch an attack: organized crime, a group of blackmailers, or just a disgruntled ex-employee or a competitor. And anyone can be the victim. One of our customers is a very small company that does training for people in the construction business, yet they came under attack for two weeks.”

  22. The online gaming sector is currently the most susceptible to attack, accounting for 50 percent of all DDoS attacks, according to Akamai’s research. Software and technology companies suffered about 25 percent of all DDoS attacks, with Internet and telecoms companies suffering just 5 percent of DDoS attacks, down from 13 percent the previous quarter.

  23. As an in-line proxy, Fastly sees all bidirectional traffic (encrypted and unencrypted) between your customer’s browser and your web server. Our edge-based filtering technology automatically filters all non-HTTP / HTTPS traffic at our global nodes, making us resistant to large, highly disruptive Layer 3 and Layer 4 attacks such as Ping floods, ICMP floods, reflection / amplification attacks, transaction, resource exhaustion, and UDP abuse. Edge cache nodes also act as enforcement points, and we can apply rules using VCL to protect your network from complex Layer 7 attacks. We inspect the entire HTTP / HTTPS requests, and block based on client and request criteria (headers, cookies, request path, client IP or AS, geo location etc.).

  24. The use of botnets to launch DDoS attacks made such attacks bigger and more lethal, so much so that DHS is dedicating time and money to address the issue. In addition to its “regular” duties, DHS is tasked with developing standardized cybersecurity methods and sharing cyber response best practices and tools with other federal agencies.

    Last year, the internet witnessed the largest DDoS attacks on record, and Radware predicts that the cybersecurity sector is entering the “1TBps DDoS era” where attacks will continue to become more sophisticated and damaging, and that means lost revenue and productivity. The Dyn attack last year caused disruptions of Netflix, Twitter, Spotify, SoundCloud, GitHub and Reddit, to name a few.

    DHS is not the only entity working on this problem. In December, Amazon Web Services introduced a service designed to protect web applications running on AWS from DDoS attacks.

  25. If you are having a similar experience on your home computer, consider contacting your internet service provider (ISP). If there is a problem, the ISP might be able to advise you of an appropriate course of action.

  26. The cloud delivers many benefits to companies and users alike, but it has one clear disadvantage: its vulnerability to cyber threats. This was brought to light this past December. Linode – a Linux cloud hosting provider – suffered from a massive attack that lasted 10 days. The DDoS attack targeted numerous systems including nameservers, application servers, and routers. It even led to a suspected account breach forcing Linode’s users to reset their passwords.

  27. Q. How to limit the ammount of concurrent connections from the same IP address.

    A. Something to do as default is to limit using IPTABLES (linux firewall) the ammount of connections from the same IP in a short time (why would an user hook 150 times to your port 80 ?)
    This will prevent the simpler DDOS attacks.

    In order to do so; you need to apply the following rule:
    iptables -I INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -i eth0 -m state –state NEW -m recent –set
    iptables -I INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -i eth0 -m state –state NEW -m recent –update –seconds 60 –hitcount 10 -j DROP
    iptables-save >/etc/iptables.up.rules

    The first line will Watch the IP connecting to your eth0 interface.
    The second line will Check if the connection is new within the last 60 seconds and if the packet flow is higher than ten and if so it will drop the connection.
    the third line will Make the rules persistant in case of a reboot (at least in debian, you may need to specify another patch or file where the rules are stored for loading at boot time)

  28. You stand a better chance of withstanding a DDoS attack if your Web server is located in a hosting center than if you run it yourself. That’s because its data center will likely have far higher bandwidth links and higher capacity routers than your company has itself, and its staff will probably have more experience dealing with attacks. Having your Web server located with a hoster will also keep DDoS traffic aimed at your Web server off your corporate LAN, so at least that part of your business — including email and possibly voice over IP services — should operate normally during an attack.

  29. IPtables Chains

    PREROUTING: raw, nat, mangle
    Applies to packets that enter the network interface card (NIC)
    INPUT: filter, mangle
    Applies to packets destined to a local socket
    FORWARD: filter, mangle
    Applies to packets that are being routed through the server
    OUTPUT: raw, filter, nat, mangle
    Applies to packets that the server sends (locally generated)
    POSTROUTING: nat, mangle
    Applies to packets that leave the server
    Depending on what kind of packets you want to block or modify, you select a certain iptables table and a chain that the selected table supports.

    Of course, we’re still missing an explanation of iptables targets (ACCEPT, DROP, REJECT, etc.), but we’re assuming that if you’re reading this article, you already know how to deal with iptables.

    We’re going to explain why your iptables rules suck to stop DDoS and not teach you how to use iptables. Let’s get back to that.

    If you want to block a DDoS attack with iptables, performance of the iptables rules is extremely important. Most TCP-based DDoS attack types use a high packet rate, meaning the sheer number of packets per second is what causes the server to go down. That’s why you want to make sure that you can process and block as many packets per second as possible.

    You’ll find that most if not all guides on how to block DDoS attacks using iptables use the filter table and the INPUT chain for anti-DDoS rules. The issue with this approach is that the INPUT chain is only processed after the PREROUTING and FORWARD chains and therefore only applies if the packet doesn’t match any of these two chains.

    This causes a delay in the filtering of the packet which consumes resources. In conclusion, to make our rules as effective as possible, we need to move our anti-DDoS rules as far up the chains as possible. The first chain that can apply to a packet is the PREROUTING chain, so ideally we’ll want to filter the bad packets in this chain already.

    However, the filter table doesn’t support the PREROUTING chain. To get around this problem, we can simply use the mangle table instead of the filter table for our anti-DDoS iptables rules. It supports most if not all rules that the filter table supports while also supporting all iptables chains.

    So you want to know why your iptables DDoS protection rules suck? It’s because you use the filter table and the INPUT chain to block the bad packets! The best solution to dramatically increase the performance of your iptables rules and therefore the amount of (TCP) DDoS attack traffic they can filter is to use the mangle table and the PREROUTING chain!

  30. To detect and block these sub-saturating attacks, companies need automated, real-time DDoS mitigation hardware in place. Without it, an organization has to constantly monitor and create filters and signatures on the fly, with the help of a human security analyst. Indeed, detecting these attacks utilizing a cloud-based model is an expensive proposition, not to mention it delays the actual mitigation.

  31. dramatic increase in the amount of spam you receive in your account
    What do you do if you think you are experiencing an attack?
    Even if you do correctly identify a DoS or DDoS attack, it is unlikely that you will be able to determine the actual target or source of the attack. Contact the appropriate technical professionals for assistance.
    If you notice that you cannot access your own files or reach any external websites from your work computer, contact your network administrators. This may indicate that your computer or your organization’s network is being attacked.

  32. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are able to take out an entire site in a matter of minutes. Firewalls and traditional tools like intrusion detection and prevention systems cannot always mitigate the security risks associated with these threats.

  33. Call Your ISP or Hosting Provider
    The next step is to call your ISP (or hosting provider if you do not host your own Web server), tell them you are under attack and ask for help. Keep emergency contacts for your ISP or hosting provider readily available, so you can do this quickly. Depending on the strength of the attack, the ISP or hoster may already have detected it, or they may themselves start to be overwhelmed by the attack.

  34. Despite this increase in frequency, the average DDoS attack duration has actually gone down 16 percent, from 22 hours to 19 hours, and the average peak DDoS attack bandwidth has decreased by 66 percent. This is likely due to the way some attackers mount attacks using “booter-stresser” tools, which only allow attacks lasting 20 to 60 minutes. This has brought down the mean (average) DDoS attack time.

  35. Stopping a DDOS (distributed denial of service attack) or DOS (denial of service attack) is no simple task. Frequently, these attacks become more than just a nuisance, they completely immobilize your server’s services and keep your users from using your website.

  36. Q. How to identify the IP that is attacking you

    A. In order to verify the number of concurrent connections from all clients that are connected to your linux Box

    Issue the following command.
    netstat -ntu | awk ‘{print $5}’ | cut -d: -f1 | sort | uniq -c | sort -n

    It will show a list of the current active connections by IP address and the offending IP is usually the one with a high number of connections:

    1 Address
    1 servers)

    In the example above the first number is the number of connections followed by the Originating IP address, the results of the netstat command used are sorted by number of connections so your offender is usually at the end, (note that there maybe several offending IPs most of the times from anonymous proxies)
    In this case the offending IP is the one with 132 connections.

    Now we need to Kill those connections to stabilize our linux server and create an IPTABLES rule to DROP those address.

  37. The Department of Homeland Security is funding new research to stop distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, according to a DHS Science and Technology Directorate.
    DHS is launching the effort in response to an increasing number of DDoS attacks over the last several months, including the attack on Dyn in October, which leveraged a botnet to launch a large-scale attack.
    “The goal of the DDoS project is to build effective and easily implemented network defenses and promote adoption of best practices by the private sector to bring about an end to the scourge of DDoS attacks,” said Daniel Massey, the project’s manager.

  38. How do you know if an attack is happening?
    Not all disruptions to service are the result of a denial-of-service attack. There may be technical problems with a particular network, or system administrators may be performing maintenance. However, the following symptoms could indicate a DoS or DDoS attack:
    unusually slow network performance (opening files or accessing websites)
    unavailability of a particular website
    inability to access any website

  39. Automatic Response vs. Human Intervention

    Corero is not opposed to DDoS mitigation services; indeed, they can be a useful adjunct to an automated DDoS mitigation solution. However, a mitigation service alone is insufficient because 1) before a service is engaged, someone or something—a computer or human—must detect a DDoS attack in progress, and 2) it takes 20-30 minutes to redirect the “bad” traffic, thus allowing more nefarious security breaches to occur during that time.

  40. Unfortunately, there are no effective ways to prevent being the victim of a DoS or DDoS attack, but there are steps you can take to reduce the likelihood that an attacker will use your computer to attack other computers:
    Install and maintain anti-virus software (see Understanding Anti-Virus Software for more information).
    Install a firewall, and configure it to restrict traffic coming into and leaving your computer (see Understanding Firewalls for more information).
    Follow good security practices for distributing your email address (see Reducing Spam for more information). Applying email filters may help you manage unwanted traffic.

  41. Overprovision Bandwidth
    It generally makes sense to have more bandwidth available to your Web server than you ever think you are likely to need. That way, you can accommodate sudden and unexpected surges in traffic that could be a result of an advertising campaign, a special offer or even a mention of your company in the media.

    Even if you overprovision by 100 percent — or 500 percent — that likely won’t stop a DDoS attack. But it may give you a few extra minutes to act before your resources are overwhelmed.

  42. When you???re performed, basically switch off the flashlight, pay the cards and go back to rest. That???s it: you???ve just “directed” a pack of subliminal messages straight to your subconscious. Following the first few days of by using this method, most folks statement problemsolving ambitions that help out with their aims or influence their conclusions. Their leaning velocity increases considerably. While the change originates from within, it isn???t always noticeable. Quickly, your aims have now been realized… When ready, you are able to proceed on your next group of targets simply by producing out a fresh set of approval cards. Most people looking over this article won???t attempt this straightforward experiment. It???s awkward, certainly???perhaps never as userfriendly like a little bit of modern subliminal application. Then check it out to get a week, and find out on your own.

  43. How to Detect an Active Attack on Your Server
    DDoS attacks are quick to start killing performance on the server. The first clue that you’re under an attack is a server crash. With IIS, the server often returns a 503 “Service Unavailable” error. It usually starts intermittently displaying this error, but heavy attacks lead to permanent 503 server responses for all of your users.

    Another hint is that the server might not completely crash, but services become too slow for production. It could take several minutes to submit a form or even render a page.

    Whether you have the inclination that your server is under attack or you’re just curious about its stats, you can start an investigation using Netstat. Netstat is a utility included in any Windows operating system.

  44. An attacker can use spam email messages to launch a similar attack on your email account. Whether you have an email account supplied by your employer or one available through a free service such as Yahoo or Hotmail, you are assigned a specific quota, which limits the amount of data you can have in your account at any given time. By sending many, or large, email messages to the account, an attacker can consume your quota, preventing you from receiving legitimate messages.

  45. IPtables Tables

    Filter: The filter table is the default and most commonly used table that rules go to if you don’t use the -t (–table) option.

    Nat: This table is used for Network Address Translation (NAT). If a packet creates a new connection, the nat table gets checked for rules.

    Mangle: The mangle table is used to modify or mark packets and their header information.

  46. Partial saturation attacks have sufficient capacity to take down a firewall, IPS, Web Application Server or back-end infrastructure without saturating the pipe. Once a firewall is down, hackers need just minutes or seconds to infiltrate a network and perform a security breach.

  47. It’s also a good idea to nominate a DDoS leader in your company who is responsible for acting should you come under attack.

  48. What is a denial-of-service (DoS) attack?
    In a denial-of-service (DoS) attack, an attacker attempts to prevent legitimate users from accessing information or services. By targeting your computer and its network connection, or the computers and network of the sites you are trying to use, an attacker may be able to prevent you from accessing email, websites, online accounts (banking, etc.), or other services that rely on the affected computer.

  49. Q. How to disconnect clients from your network interfaces.

    A1. Killing the the connections with TCPKILL:

    TCPKILL is part of dsniff a tools suite for linux to sniff network traffic for cleartext insecurities
    This package contains several tools to listen to and create network traffic:

    arpspoof – Send out unrequested (and possibly forged) arp replies.
    dnsspoof – forge replies to arbitrary DNS address / pointer queries on the Local Area Network.
    dsniff – password sniffer for several protocols.
    filesnarf – saves selected files sniffed from NFS traffic.
    macof – flood the local network with random MAC addresses.
    mailsnarf – sniffs mail on the LAN and stores it in mbox format.
    msgsnarf – record selected messages from different Instant Messengers.
    sshmitm – SSH monkey-in-the-middle. proxies and sniffs SSH traffic.
    sshow – SSH traffic analyser
    tcpkill – kills specified in-progress TCP connections.
    tcpnice – slow down specified TCP connections via “active” traffic shaping.
    urlsnarf – output selected URLs sniffed from HTTP traffic in CLF.
    webmitm – HTTP / HTTPS monkey-in-the-middle. transparently proxies.
    webspy – sends URLs sniffed from a client to your local browser.
    What interests us here is TCPKILL first we need to install dsniff, in linux distribution: Debian we do:

    apt-get install dsniff

    Then we run:

    tcpkill host xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

    where xxx… is replaced with the identified offending IP address.

    A2. Another method to Kill the offending connections inmediatly is using CUTTER

    Cutter will send packets to both ends of a TCP/ip connection to terminate it nicely. It is designed to be used in a Linux router to disconnect unwanted connections.
    To install Cutter we issue the following command:

    apt-get install cutter

    Once installed we run Cutter with the arguments:


    So we replace with our linux box IP address, with the listening port in the server, and with the offending IP

    After using TCPKILL or CUTTER The process count should be reduced drastically now and the server’s memory usage lowered to nice numbers. (Our linux server is stabilized now)
    Finally we need to Block the offending IP address in our Firewall (IPtables rule).

  50. Botnets are increasingly easy for people to get access to. There are now websites where you can rent time on a botnet, paying with a credit card or bitcoin and choosing your target via a simple web form.

  51. Recently, we’ve entered into a new DDoS paradigm. As security blogger Brian Krebs notes, the newfound ability to highjack insecure internet of things devices and turn them into a massive DDoS army has contributed to an uptick in the size and scale of recent DDoS attacks. (We’re not sure if an IoT botnet was what took down Dyn this morning, but it would be a pretty good guess.)

  52. How Is a DDoS Organized?
    Before we get into ways to identify a DDoS attack, it’s important to understand how they are organized and work. Decades ago, a few machines were enough to crash a web server. Now with expanded bandwidth and faster computer resources, attackers need thousands of machines to flood a server with traffic.

    Attackers use botnets, which comprise thousands of zombie machines that are hacked individual PCs or servers. These PCs have malware installed on them and give the attacker the ability to control the machines from one remote location. Attackers are able to install malware on a remote machine through malicious software included in phishing emails or using web pages called “Java drive-by pages.” If the attacker can trick the user into allowing the Java code to run, he can infect the machine with various rootkits and trojans.

    The infected zombie machines give total control to the hacker. When the hacker is ready to attack, he signals the legions of zombie machines to flood a specific target. For well-structured infrastructure, the hacker could fail. However, most attacks are successful at some level either harming service performance or breaching security.

    Hackers also have several choices in the type of DDoS they use.SYN attacks are most commonly used in large attacks.

    With smaller attacks, companies can add more bandwidth and server resources, but DDoS attacks continue to increase in bandwidth and duration. Small site owners only purchase hosting services that allow a few thousand concurrent connections, but attackers can simulate 100,000 connections with an effective botnet.

  53. Another way to perform a DDoS is called an “amplification attack”. Some kinds of internet services (notably DNS and NTP) are often misconfigured in such a way that it’s possible to, via a small request, trick the service into sending a large response somewhere else. If several botnet machines all make these kind of requests it results in an enormous amount of traffic hitting the target.

    Symptoms of the Apache DDOS or DOS attack:

    Website(s) serve slow
    You notice hanging processes
    Apache Top tells you that the same IP address is requesting a system resource
    The system resource continues to multiplex, causing more processes to spawn
    The Command:
    netstat -ntu | awk ‘{print $5}’ | cut -d: -f1 | sort | uniq -c | sort -n
    Says that you have a few too many connections to feel comfortable with.
    The end result:

    Apache goes down
    System load goes sky high
    Server stops responding
    You cant ssh to the server node
    You’ve lost connectivity completely and a reboot is mandatory in order to restore access to the system
    Preventative Measures and Counter Measures:

    Enable SYN COOKIES at the kernel level
    echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/tcp_syncookies
    Enable and Configure iptables to prevent the attack or at least work to identify the attack
    /sbin/iptables -N syn-flood
    /sbin/iptables -A syn-flood -m limit –limit 100/second –limit-burst 150 -j RETURN
    /sbin/iptables -A syn-flood -j LOG –log-prefix “SYN flood: ”
    /sbin/iptables -A syn-flood -j DROP
    Install the APF firewall to work to identify risky behavior
    APF stands for Advanced Policy Firewall. Its a rock solid firewall that normally plays nice with iptables. You can grab a the most recent copy here: http://www.rfxn.com/projects/
    Install (D)DosDeflate
    Great software, rock solid, and plays nice with either APF or iptables. Install and configure the service in seconds using the commands below. Edit the .conf file to utilize whichever flavor of firewall you’d like to integrate it with. Set a few configuration settings and you’re done.
    To Install (D)DosDeflate:
    wget http://www.inetbase.com/scripts/ddos/install.sh
    chmod 0700 install.sh
    If it doesnt workout, its simple to uninstall too. To uninstall:
    wget http://www.inetbase.com/scripts/ddos/uninstall.ddos
    chmod 0700 uninstall.ddos
    So a few tools are outlined above. We’ve found that this will stop 90% of the attacks that are out there. Some nice firewall rules above your server (at the router or switch level) also help. Most of the time we can identify suspicious traffic before it even hits your servers, so a shameless plug here is probably in order.

  55. DDoS attacks, at the most basic level, work like this. An attacker sends a flurry of packets, essentially just garbage data, to an intended recipient. In this case, the recipient was Dyn’s DNS servers. The server is overwhelmed with the garbage packets, and can’t handle the incoming connections, eventually slowing down significantly or totally shutting down. In the case of Dyn, it was probably a little more complex than this. Dyn almost certainly has advanced systems for DDoS mitigation, and the people who attacked Dyn (whoever they are) were probably using something more advanced than a PC in their mom’s basement.

  56. Why Your IPtables Anti-DDoS Rules Suck
    To understand why your current iptables rules to prevent DDoS attacks suck, we first have to dig into how iptables works.

    iptables is a command line tool used to set up and control the tables of IP packet filter rules. There are different tables for different purposes.

  57. Volumetric vs. Sub-Saturating DDoS Attacks

    The key phrase I want to point out from the above quote is “volumetric attack.” When most people think of DDoS attacks, they think in terms of high bandwidth-consuming DDoS attacks. Volumetric DDoS attacks are easier to identify and defend against, with on-premises or cloud anti-DDoS solutions, or a combination of both. But DDoS attacks are not always volumetric. The fact is, the majority of DDoS attacks are small and fly “under the radar.”

  58. Types of DDoS attacks
    There are three types of DDoS attacks. Network-centric or volumetric attacks overload a targeted resource by consuming available bandwidth with packet floods. Protocol attacks target network layer or transport layer protocols using flaws in the protocols to overwhelm targeted resources. And application layer attacks overload application services or databases with a high volume of application calls. The inundation of packets at the target causes a denial of service.

  59. The request comes after these Wikileaks fans claimed to be behind the cyberattacks on Dyn, which took down a number of internet services, including Reddit, Netflix, Spotify, Box, and more. Attacks began early Friday morning, and after a brief resolution, resumed again later in the afternoon. Users in both the U.S. and Europe were unable to access these sites as a result of the attacks.

  60. What Is IPtables?
    netfilter iptables (soon to be replaced by nftables) is a user-space command line utility to configure kernel packet filtering rules developed by netfilter. It’s the default firewall management utility on Linux systems – everyone working with Linux systems should be familiar with it or have at least heard of it.

    iptables can be used to filter certain packets, block source or destination ports and IP addresses, forward packets via NAT and a lot of other things. Most commonly it’s used to block destination ports and source IP addresses.

  61. Botnets can be comprised of almost any number of bots; botnets with tens or hundreds of thousands of nodes have become increasingly common, and there may not be an upper limit to their size. Once the botnet is assembled, the attacker can use the traffic generated by the compromised devices to flood the target domain and knock it offline.

  62. To be in a position to do this, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with your typical inbound traffic profile; the more you know about what your normal traffic looks like, the easier it is to spot when its profile changes. Most DDoS attacks start as sharp spikes in traffic, and it’s helpful to be able to tell the difference between a sudden surge of legitimate visitors and the start of a DDoS attack.

  63. “To mitigate or avoid the same fate suffered by Dyn, companies should lock down their DNS servers to prevent them from being used as part of an attack as well as implement DDoS mitigation services that can detect and react when a volumetric attack is being staged. Load Balancers with integrated intrusion prevention (IPS) and web application firewall (WAF) services also add another layer of protection by detecting and preventing application-focused Layer 7 DDoS attacks.”

  64. The main way to do this is via “botnets”. A botnet consists of many (usually hundreds or thousands) of normal home or work computers that have malicious software installed on them. This software comes from a variety of sources – email (spam/viruses), add-ons in software installers (adware/malware), and so on. Once installed, this software will “phone home” to a control server, and wait for commands. An attacker will issue a command to the compromised machines instructing them to start sending a lot of network requests to the site being attacked.

  65. So how can you stop a DDoS attack?

    Identify a DDoS Attack Early
    If you run your own servers, then you need to be able to identify when you are under attack. That’s because the sooner you can establish that problems with your website are due to a DDoS attack, the sooner you can start to do something about it.

  66. Although DDoS mitigation solutions have been around for nearly 20 years, there are still some myths about DDoS attacks and much debate about how to best protect a network. Some IT professionals think that as long as they have a layered defense approach: i.e., a firewall, load balancers, an intrusion prevention system (IPS), and a DDoS mitigation service, they are safe. (Actually, many believe they don’t even need a DDoS mitigation service.)

  67. Following a massive DDoS attack that left much of the internet in a disarray throughout Friday, WikiLeaks has emerged as a voice crying out in the wilderness. In a message sent out via Twitter (one of the many internet sites affected by the attack on Dyn), WikiLeaks implored its “supporters” to stop attacking the web at large. “Mr. Assange is still alive and WikiLeaks is still publishing,” the site said in a tweet. “We ask supporters to stop taking down the U.S. internet. You proved your point.”

  68. Q. How do I block an IP address or subnet under Linux using IPTABLES?

    A. In order to block an IP on your Linux server you need to use iptables tools (administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT) and netfilter firewall. To block IP address you need to type iptables command as follows:

    Syntax to block an IP address under Linux
    iptables -A INPUT -s xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx -j DROP

    Replace XXX.XXX… with the actual IP address. For example if you wish to block ip address for whatever reason then type command as follows:

    iptables -A INPUT -s -j DROP

    If you have IP tables firewall script, add above rule to your script.

    If you just want to block access to one port from an ip to port 25 then type command:

    iptables -A INPUT -s -p tcp –destination-port 25 -j DROP

    The above rule will drop all packets coming from IP to port mail server port 25.

    But the DROP will not be inmediate and may need a server restart if there are already connections from the offending IP.

    This scenario is common with script kiddies trying to DDOS your server.

  69. A computer or networked device under the control of an intruder is known as a zombie, or bot. The attacker creates what is called a command-and-control server to command the network of bots, also called a botnet. The person in control of a botnet is sometimes referred to as the botmaster (that term has also historically been used to refer to the first system “recruited” into a botnet because it is used to control the spread and activity of other systems in the botnet).

  70. There are also pre-packaged or Web-based DDoS toolkits like Low Orbit Ion Cannon and RussKill that anyone with a minimal amount of know-how can use.

  71. Can I be DDoSed?

    Anybody can be the target of a DDoS attack, but only if the attacker knows your IP address. Fortunately, your IP should be hidden automatically if you only play online through official servers and platforms like the Xbox or Steam networks. However, if you’re a PC gamer who plays games that support private third-party servers (like Minecraft or Team Fortress 2), your IP may be visible to server administrators or to the public when you’re connected.

  72. DDoS mitigation specialists include:

    Arbor Networks
    Black Lotus
    F5 Networks

  73. If a DDoS attack is large enough, the first thing a hosting company or ISP is likely to do is “null route” your traffic — which results in packets destined for your Web server being dropped before they arrive.

  74. It used to be technically difficult to launch a DDoS attack, but now it’s possible to rent a botnet of tens or even hundreds of thousands of infected or “zombie” machines relatively cheaply and use these zombies to launch an attack. And as the Internet develops, home or office computers that have become zombies can make use of increasingly high bandwidth Internet connections.

  75. DDoS attacks have been carried out by diverse threat actors, ranging from individual criminal hackers to organized crime rings and government agencies. In certain situations, often ones related to poor coding, missing patches or generally unstable systems, even legitimate requests to target systems can result in DDoS-like results.

  76. A distributed attack
    The idea behind a DDoS is for the attacker to generate more traffic than the receiving site can deal with. A single computer is unlikely to have enough network resources available to overwhelm a server, which is probably on the end of a high-capacity connection to the internet. But if you can get computers all over the world on many different networks to make requests at the same time, you can make it all add up to more than the server can deal with.

  77. There are plenty of ways that can be done, but one of the easiest for an attacker to perform is to overwhelm the network connection that the service receives its requests from. It’s the “distributed” part that makes this easy – compromised computers (via malware and viruses) all over the world can be instructed to make a large number of requests to a network service at the same time, clogging up the network connection and preventing legitimate requests from getting through. The analogy we used to describe it last month was that “it is like being unable to get to your post box because a huge crowd has formed around the front door of the post office.”

  78. What is a DDoS?
    The expansion of “DDoS” is “Distributed Denial-of-Service”, but even that doesn’t mean a whole lot without talking about what a Denial-of-Service attack is, so lets start there.

  79. The Necurs botnet has learned a new trick. Instead of spewing spam delivering Locky ransomware, the notorious botnet is now capable of launching DDoS attacks.

    According to BitSight’s Anubis Labs, the malware was modified in September to include a module that adds DDoS capabilities and new proxy command-and-control communication functions. Necurs is the malware that makes up the botnet that goes by the same name and is currently active on one million Windows PCs, according to researcher Tiago Pereira, threat intel researcher with Anubis Labs.

    “Necurs is a modular malware that can be used for many different purposes. What’s new with the sample we found is the addition of a module that adds SOCKS/HTTP proxy and DDoS capabilities to this malware,” he said.

    About six months ago, Pereira said, Anubis Labs noticed that beside the usual port 80 communications, a Necurs-infected system was communicating with a set of IPs through a different port using, what appeared to be, a different protocol.

  80. The most common and obvious type of DoS attack occurs when an attacker “floods” a network with information. When you type a URL for a particular website into your browser, you are sending a request to that site’s computer server to view the page. The server can only process a certain number of requests at once, so if an attacker overloads the server with requests, it can’t process your request. This is a “denial of service” because you can’t access that site.

  81. A distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack is an attack in which multiple compromised computer systems attack a target, such as a server, website or other network resource, and cause a denial of service for users of the targeted resource. The flood of incoming messages, connection requests or malformed packets to the target system forces it to slow down or even crash and shut down, thereby denying service to legitimate users or systems.

  82. How DDoS attacks work
    In a typical DDoS attack, the assailant begins by exploiting a vulnerability in one computer system and making it the DDoS master. The attack master system identifies other vulnerable systems and gains control over them by either infecting the systems with malware or through bypassing the authentication controls (i.e., guessing the default password on a widely used system or device).

  83. DDoS Attacks More Frequent
    DDoS attacks are becoming increasingly commonplace, according to research published by Akamai at the end of 2015. It reported a 180 percent increase in the total number of DDoS attacks compared to the same period a year earlier.

  84. A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is an attempt to make an online service unavailable by overwhelming it with traffic from multiple sources. They target a wide variety of important resources, from banks to news websites, and present a major challenge to making sure people can publish and access important information.

    Service providers are under mounting pressure to prevent, monitor and mitigate DDoS
    attacks directed toward their customers and their infrastructure. DDoS attacks on
    businesses are increasing at an alarming rate. Network security has now evolved to
    become a critical part of business success. A secure network infrastructure moulds the
    foundation for service delivery in all businesses, large and small. For network service
    providers and carriers, network security has always been important but today it
    strongly influences network design considerations and technology purchasing decisions
    more than ever before. Enterprise customers increasingly want their service providers
    to protect their network assets from large DDoS attacks and other security threats.
    The sheer number and capability of botnets grows dramatically each year as well as
    the sophistication of application attack toolsets. HOIC and its succeeding generations
    of volunteer based, botnet controlled PCs will almost certainly evolve to pose a
    significant Internet-wide threat. However, traditionally the DDoS threat has come
    more from increasingly professional criminal hackers than volunteer activists or
    “hacktivists” The Internet is part of the critical national infrastructure but is unique in
    that it has no customary borders to safeguard it from attacks.
    Attacks that are seen every day on the Internet include direct attacks, remote
    controlled attacks, reflective attacks, worms, and viruses. Specific attacks directed at a
    service provider’s infrastructure can be very damaging and cause wide spread outages.
    This paper covers these attacks and discusses techniques to prevent attacks including
    good security policies, new/updated product security testing, patch management,
    spoofed packet dropping (uRPF) and firewall/IDS/IPS deployment in a service provider

  86. Attack Timeline
    Starting at approximately 7:00 am ET, Dyn began experiencing a DDoS attack. While it’s not uncommon for Dyn’s Network Operations Center (NOC) team to mitigate DDoS attacks, it quickly became clear that this attack was different (more on that later). Approximately two hours later, the NOC team was able to mitigate the attack and restore service to customers. Unfortunately, during that time, internet users directed to Dyn servers on the East Coast of the US were unable to reach some of our customers’ sites, including some of the marquee brands of the internet. We should note that Dyn did not experience a system-wide outage at any time – for example, users accessing these sites on the West Coast would have been successful.

    After restoring service, Dyn experienced a second wave of attacks just before noon ET. This second wave was more global in nature (i.e. not limited to our East Coast POPs), but was mitigated in just over an hour; service was restored at approximately 1:00 pm ET. Again, at no time was there a network-wide outage, though some customers would have seen extended latency delays during that time.

    News reports of a third attack wave were verified by Dyn based on our information. While there was a third attack attempted, we were able to successfully mitigate it without customer impact.

    Dyn’s operations and security teams initiated our mitigation and customer communications process through our incident management system. We practice and prepare for scenarios like this on a regular basis, and we run constantly evolving playbooks and work with mitigation partners to address scenarios like these.

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